Ankylosis may be defined as the fusion of joint surfaces. TMJ ankylosis is a rare disorder due to the fusion of the mandibular condyle at the cranial base. Trauma, systemic diseases, or infections mainly cause it. It is divided into fibrous and bony types:

  • Fibrous—the result of chronic inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis) or disuse—mostly associated with disk displacements (as a result of traumatic injuries) and involves the actual joint.
  • Bony—partial ossification of the joint capsule and extracurricular conditions (such as enlargement of the coronoid process) or complete fusion of the mandible to the temporal bone.


Pain; loss of range of motion; deformed facial aesthetics; asymmetrical jaw line; acute compromise of the airway, resulting in physical and psychological disability.


Patient clinical history:

  • Past history of any disease or condition that could lead to current state; history of trauma; usually bilateral but can be unilateral.


  • Imaging shows loss of normal joint architecture: identifies condylar deformity and either narrowing or irregularity of joint space or obliteration of the normal bony morphology.


Arthrotomy with disk reconstruction, costalchondral graft, partial or total joint replacement.


a-maintain maximum ramal height
b-insertion of interpostional material to avoid fusion of joint anatomical components.
c-initiate long-term post-surgical physical therapy.

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