Ankylosis may be defined as the fusion of joint surfaces. TMJ ankylosis is a rare disorder due to the fusion of the mandibular condyle at the cranial base. Trauma, systemic diseases, or infections mainly cause it. It is divided into fibrous and bony types:
- Fibrous—the result of chronic inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis) or disuse—mostly associated with disk displacements (as a result of traumatic injuries) and involves the actual joint.
- Bony—partial ossification of the joint capsule and extracurricular conditions (such as enlargement of the coronoid process) or complete fusion of the mandible to the temporal bone.
Pain; loss of range of motion; deformed facial aesthetics; asymmetrical jaw line; acute compromise of the airway, resulting in physical and psychological disability.
Patient clinical history:
- Past history of any disease or condition that could lead to current state; history of trauma; usually bilateral but can be unilateral.
- Imaging shows loss of normal joint architecture: identifies condylar deformity and either narrowing or irregularity of joint space or obliteration of the normal bony morphology.
Arthrotomy with disk reconstruction, costalchondral graft, partial or total joint replacement.
a-maintain maximum ramal height
b-insertion of interpostional material to avoid fusion of joint anatomical components.
c-initiate long-term post-surgical physical therapy.